Copyright Statement

BUSINESS EDITION publishes its own Articles (referred to here as BUSINESS EDITION Articles) and Articles owned by third parties (referred to here as Hosted Articles). When we refer to Articles, we include both BUSINESS EDITION Articles and Hosted Articles.

In this Copyright Statement, Websites (with a capitalised W) refers to all BUSINESS EDITION websites, including those of Hosted Articles. An Owner means BUSINESS EDITION as owner of all BUSINESS EDITION Articles, or the respective owner of a Hosted Journal.

All content included on these Websites (including Loop), such as text, graphics, logos, button icons, images, video/audio clips, downloads, data compilations and software, is the property of the person or entity who or which owned it prior to submission to BUSINESS EDITION or to a Hosted Article. If not owned by BUSINESS EDITION or an Owner of a Hosted Article, it is licensed to BUSINESS EDITION , such Owner or its or their licensees and/or subcontractors.

The ownership of copyright in the text of individual articles (including research articles, opinion articles, book reviews, conference proceedings and abstracts) is not affected by its submission to or publication by BUSINESS EDITION, whether for itself or for a Hosted Articles. BUSINESS EDITION benefits from a general licence over all content submitted. Hosted Article Owners benefit from a general licence over all content submitted to their respective Hosted Articles. BUSINESS EDITION, Hosted Journal Owners and all their users benefit from a general permission over all content, as specified below.

Images and graphics not forming part of user-contributed materials are the property of or are licensed to BUSINESS EDITION and may not be downloaded or copied without BUSINESS EDITION’ explicit and specific permission or in accordance with any specific copyright notice attached to that material.

The combination of all content on BUSINESS EDITION websites, and the look and feel of the BUSINESS EDITION websites, is the property of BUSINESS EDITION .

You may include a requirement to reproduce copyright notices but you may not restrict the right to reproduce the entire article, including third-party graphics. This means that you must obtain any necessary third-party consents and permissions to reproduce third-party materials in your articles submitted to Frontiers.

The reproduction of third-party graphics and other third-party materials contained in articles published prior to 25th May 2018 may be subject to third-party notices prohibiting their reproduction without permission. You must comply with those notices.

Articles published prior to July 2012: The licence granted for these articles may be different and you should check the pdf version of any article to establish what licence was granted. If an article carries only a non-commercial licence and you wish to obtain a commercial licence, please contact BUSINESS EDITION at

Article metadata, as defined in  Business Edition T&C’s, are the property of BUSINESS EDITION or the Owner of the respective Hosted Journal.

All software used on this site, and the copyright in the code constituting such software, and all intellectual property in all such elements, is the property of or is licensed to BUSINESS EDITION and its use is restricted in accordance with the Business Edition T&C’s. All copyright, and all rights therein, are protected by national and international copyright laws.

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